Coed Cwm Einion
Coed Cwm Einion has developed on steep valley sides along a section of the Afon Einion. The SAC is a prime example of Tilio-Acerion woodland, which describes small-leaved lime woodland on steep rocky slopes; this type of woodland is supported within more base-enriched areas of the site where ash dominates over oak and where wych elm occurs.
Tilio-Acerion is a scarce habitat recognised as internationally important and Coed Cwm Einion is considered to support one of the best examples in Britain. Cwm Einion is also of Special Scientific Interest because it supports a good example of ancient semi-natural mixed broad-leaved woodland with sessile oak, rowan and downy birch. The associated shrub and ground layer of both the oak and ash components of Coed Cwm Einion are currently impoverished due to grazing pressure.
The woodland is important for its rich communities of ferns, lichens (177 species) and bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) (154 species). In addition to the rare lichen Parmotrema robustum, which is known to occur at only three other sites in Britain, there are 11 nationally scarce species of lichens, liverworts and mosses. Locally distinctive species, namely marsh hawk’s-beard, Tunbridge filmy-fern and hay-scented buckler fern also occur here. Bracken covers part of the hillside at the north-western end. The southern side of the SSSI is covered by plantations mainly composed of beech, Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Japanese larch and Lawson cypress.